There’s been so much of wonderful science shows on tv, many available on DVD and/or on YouTube. Carl Sagan’s Cosmos immediately comes to thoughts and MythBusters whereas extremely entertaining has plenty of solid science content too. However, IMHO, the cream of the crop, the better of one of the best, has been the By the Wormhole collection hosted by actor Morgan Freeman. Every of the episodes examines a type of nebulous Huge Questions. Here are the questions asked on or about physics, and my personal opinions on every.
SEASON ONE: Is Time Travel Doable?
Of course time journey is possible! We journey into the long run whether or not we like it or not at one second per second. However there’s Einstein’s Relativity and his twin paradox whereby as you go faster and sooner the speed of change (i.e. – time) slows down relative to an external observer. In different phrases, you do not age as fast because the external observer does. Thus, if the traveler and the exterior observer have been the identical age at the beginning of the traveling, when the traveler returns, she will be youthful than her counterpart (twin), or, put one other approach, she could have traveled into the long run.
In fact what most people imply by time travel is journey into the previous. While time journey to the previous is a sure-yes in Relativity concept, and is likely to be verified on the quantum stage, it’s a no-no for 2 reasons. The usual cause is that each one method of paradoxes can come up and philosophers, physicists and sci-fi authors have had a field day with those. Extra to the point, from an observational standpoint, there’s no evidence for visitations by our descendants from our future. There are not any experiences of the expected hoards of time touring vacationers coming back in time to witness the assassination of JFK, the launch of Apollo eleven, the gunfight on the Ok corral, the sinking of RMS Titanic or the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor or any of different doable 1000’s of serious historical events. If time journey to the past have been actually possible, you’d anticipate properly-heeled tourists to take advantage of it. Time travel to the past simply could also be in the too laborious or too costly basket for even the most advanced technical civilization.
Time travel to the previous would after all be attainable in a Simulated (Virtual Actuality) Universe. Laptop software program could simply simulate such situations. That is also the case in a fashion of talking if the Supreme Programmer makes an oops in the unique programming and rewinds the software again and makes the required correction(s). Of course that’s not a lot a simulation of time travel as just turning the clock again and resetting it.
SEASON ONE: What Are We actually Fabricated from?
No, it isn’t sugar and spice and all the things good but it is more than just pure neutrons, protons and electrons (which means you’re made of Large Bang stuff) since you might be also various combinations of those elementary particles like carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and many others. (so you might be additionally star-stuff). In turn of course these atoms combine to kind molecules like your proteins, sugars, fats, amino acids, and many others. You’re also made from those 4 universal forces. Nevertheless weak, there has to be gravity (and subsequently gravitons?) between your whole atoms and molecules. You are barely radioactive so the weak nuclear drive is inside you. Electromagnetism (photons) holds you together but you also radiate infrared photons. Lastly the strong nuclear drive holds your atomic nuclei collectively in place giving them stability. Additionally, virtual particles (digital because you cannot really see them) pop into and out of your innards and your reality contributing to most of your weight. But there’s nothing that is nothing that includes something about you. There’s nothing nebulous about your mind (or soul or essence or spirit or self if you’d reasonably). Your thoughts is composed of and resides in the identical types of matter and forces that makes up your huge toe.
Nevertheless, there could be no reality to you in any respect, just arithmetic, and I don’t imply the sorts of arithmetic that apparently govern the various legal guidelines, principles and relationships of physics that make you a extremely actual you. The arithmetic here is software program. You’re just software program as a result of we exist in a Simulated (Digital Reality) Universe! That’s what you might be actually fabricated from – bits and bytes!
SEASON TWO: Does Time Actually Exist?
No, time doesn’t exist. Time is just a concept involving the notion of change. What we call time is just our intellect making sense of and by measuring charge of change. If nothing ever modified the notion of time would turn into meaningless. Time is just not a thing of substance or construction. It’s infinite in duration since change all the time has been and all the time shall be, because of the vacuum energy if for no other motive.
SEASON TWO: Are There Greater than Three Dimensions?
There aren’t even three dimensions! The idea of spatial dimensions is simply that, a concept that resides inside us. Dimensions are obviously a helpful mathematical assemble, but there’s nothing magical a few right angle. A zero dimensional level is an idea that has no unbiased actuality exterior of the human mind; a one dimensional line is likewise a concept; any two dimensional area is an idea and ditto space or quantity. The fourth dimension, time, can also be an idea (see: “Does Time Really Exist?” immediately above.) Therefore, any additional spatial dimensions are also just (at this point in time advanced theoretical) mathematical constructs which might be even more nebulous than a zero dimensional level. The concept of additional curled up hidden spatial dimensions – at one level there was envisioned as much as 26 or so spatial dimensions in ‘actuality’ – is so paranormal it makes ‘normal’ paranormal ideas appear downright plausible. After all these hidden further dimensions are useful is explaining where the Easter Bunny and the Tooth Fairy and Unicorns reside! Maybe God has exiled all these “don’t have any other gods before me” like Zeus and Odin and Quetzalcoatl and their associated pantheons to these curled up hidden dimensions – kind of like the Phantom Zone of the Superman universe.
SEASON TWO: How Does the Universe Work?
The usual answer is that you simply apply the laws, principles and relationships of physics to the 4 basic forces and all the related elementary particles then sit back and watch the Universe unfold as it should. Which means there ought to be a Concept of All the pieces (TOE). The Holy Grail of trendy physics is to unify the 4 forces of nature and the properties of their related particles and make the lot appropriate with each Classical (macro) Physics and Quantum (micro) Physics. It is kind of on the stage of assembling a zillion piece jigsaw puzzle with many items missing and having other items that do not match. Nonetheless, IMHO it’s logical to assume that there should be a TOE, yet that TOE is proving to be just a tad too elusive for comfort. Alas, 1000’s of some of the finest minds in all of theoretical physics over many decades now have tilted at windmills of their quest for a TOE. The consequence up to now has been zip; zilch; zero. It cannot be that tough, assuming of course that there really does exist a TOE which may match on the entrance of a geek’s tee-shirt. My various is akin to how there may be more than one variety of software program that runs your Pc. There isn’t a TOE to your laptop computer. There isn’t any TOE for our Universe either. Classical Physics is governed by one set of software. Quantum Physics is governed by a second, separate and apart set of software and never the twain shall meet and greet. That is because the Universe is extra seemingly as not akin to your Pc’s software packages (plural). We exist in a Simulated (Virtual Actuality) Universe that requires separate and apart set of software and never the twain shall meet and greet. My prediction therefore is that questing for a TOE is akin to questing for that pot of gold at the end of the rainbow.
SEASON TWO: Can We Travel Sooner Than Light?
Let’s start off and assume we exist in Mother Nature’s universe. If something pure might journey at better than gentle pace, we might in all probability know about it. So, if superluminal velocities are attainable technology must be the key, and of course sci-fi is filled with all types of techno-babble about doing just that. The fundamental ways and means seems to be by taking shortcuts by way of wormholes, black holes, additional dimensions, and so forth. Wormholes appear probably the most promising, besides I’m unsure how one may create one that will hyperlink where you’re to where you want to be. Even so, one would only apparently break the light speed barrier. Say the theoretical speed limit was 1000 mph. Say you wanted to journey precisely halfway around the Earth. Going through an incredible circle route, it will take you roughly 12.5 hours. Nevertheless, in the event you cheated by going directly by way of the Earth – journey by way of an extra dimension or a ‘wormhole’ tunnel – you’d get to where you have been going, still traveling at one thousand mph, in about eight hours. It will seem as when you had broken that theoretical pace limit of a thousand mph although you didn’t. Let’s just say in principle sure, in apply this idea may end up within the too onerous basket.
However, in different universes, assuming a Multiverse, the laws of physics is likely to be completely different and there won’t be theoretical limits or a limit larger than our velocity of gentle limitation. In a supernatural universe, assuming a God (or gods) then bodily legal guidelines will be damaged if God so needs them damaged and thus miracles can happen. In a simulated universe, the software will be altered or rewritten to permit a quicker than light speed situation. In a dream universe, you dream landscape, you’ll be able to accomplish whatever you damn well please. You may travel from one finish of the cosmos to the opposite in nanoseconds for those who so need.
By the by, I’m ignoring right here these apparent speed of light violations within the realm of the quantum. There’s quantum tunneling and entanglement, which, if one is to believe theoretical and even not so theoretical physicists, are instantaneous happenings. However, IMHO, there are enough anomalies in quantum mechanics to assign that whole subsection of physics to the paranormal bin.
SEASON THREE: Is the Universe Alive?
I don’t know in regards to the Universe being alive, but apparently the fundamental or elementary particles, the constituents that make up everything the Universe contains have animate properties.
In case you are to consider the experimental and observational outcomes inherent in quantum mechanics, the answer would have to be a certified “Sure”. You don’t need to learn too many books on quantum or particle physics, particularly the more standard tomes that replace advanced and technical arithmetic for English, to comprehend the number of occasions free will and awareness phrases like how particles ‘determine’ or ‘choose’ or ‘know’ are used.
If one were to truly counsel that the fundamental constructing blocks of our reality, those elementary particles like photons and electrons had some sort of ‘consciousness’ or ‘self-consciousness’ and an ability to exhibit ‘free will’ and make ‘selections’, let’s simply say the overwhelming majority not simply of the scientific community but even most people at massive (the great unwashed) would view that individual as a loony despite the experimental and observational info.
For instance, you’ve one mild source. You’ve gotten one regular everyday clear and clear pane of glass. A few of the light (photons) from the light source will go clear by means of the clear glass, however a few of those an identical photons will reflect off the clear floor of the pane of glass. One set of circumstances yields two differing but simultaneous outcomes. That violates trigger-and-effect. That is loopy, however it happens as you can confirm for your self. So how does a gentle photon ‘decide’ whether to cross by or reflect off of the pane of glass? Alternatively, how does a radio photon ‘determine’ whether or to not pass by your brick partitions and enter your radio, or replicate off of your brick wall and thus fail to contribute to the strength of your radio’s broadcast transmission?
Effectively, since I have no educational fame to defend, I am going to wax lyrical and promote that viewpoint, while noting that a particle’s ‘free will’ could be restricted, as per the above instance, simply as your own free will (assuming you might have such a property) is restricted. You can’t flap your arms and fly and dwell lengthy enough to challenge Methuselah’s longevity, free shall be damned.
Einstein was a type of skeptics. To his dying day, Einstein insisted that there were hidden variables that may, when discovered account for all these numerous quantum anomalies – quantum magic. These hidden variables would finally unite quantum physics with classical physics. Sadly for Einstein, experiments have since ‘proved’ that there aren’t any hidden variables of the kind Einstein had in thoughts. That’s because, the answer to that “is the universe alive” question, IMHO the hidden variable, which Einstein couldn’t have envisioned in even his wildest imagination, is a Supreme Programmer who creates our Simulated (Digital Reality) Universe.
SEASON THREE: What’s Nothing?
There is totally no such factor as nothing, other than the theoretical idea. If there were completely nothing, then nothing may ever change, and there might be no idea of time (which is how we measure rate of change). Pure area may be completely nothing, since space is a concept and never a factor. A vacuum nonetheless is still a one thing since even a vacuum (in house or in the laboratory) remains to be crammed with gravity (which might never be decreased to zero) and probably photons not to say neutrinos. The closest one will get to nothing is the vacuum vitality. No matter what, the idea of absolute zero stays just a theoretical idea (like nothing) and may by no means be achieved since energy, like gravity, can’t ever be diluted to, effectively, nothing. That tiny residual power can morph into matter, truly symmetrical matter and antimatter particles, which then normally mutually annihilate producing pure vitality. However, this vacuum energy remains to be a something, even when only a whiff of a one thing. Nevertheless, energy and associated particles are quantum issues and thus are available in discrete packets. Energy, with perhaps the exception of gravity, isn’t a continuous thing. One could conceive of a quantity so small that it comprises no vitality packets, or say the area between two Rey neutrinos. That tiny quantity with nothing in it or that area (with nothing between the neutrinos) might be considered as nothing or just space, which is nothingness.
SEASON 4: Is Reality Real?
There are 4 doable forms of reality that we is likely to be part of. Actual reality might be outlined by most of us as Mother Nature’s actuality, the reality that our five senses transmit to our brain as being reality, the reality of an exterior realm the place the legal guidelines, ideas and relationships of physics finally rule the cosmic roost. Two plus two all the time equals four. It is the truth of dying (and taxes).
The second risk of a actuality is a supernatural actuality that is governed by a supernatural deity or deities. In a supernatural reality the laws, ideas and relationships of physics don’t in the end rule the cosmic roost. Miracles can and do occur. Things are usually not at all times as they seem and two plus two can equal 5. There’s not necessarily a reality of dying (however you still get taxes).
The third reality sort of straddles the 2 different possibilities. That reality is virtual actuality. There finally exists at the highest level a Mom Nature kind of cosmos. Inside that cosmos are entities that may assemble virtual simulated universes and worlds and beings. The query is, are we those top level entities that create, or are we the virtual creation of one (or more) of those top level entities? Probability dictates that we are the created, not the creators on the grounds that for every Mom Nature world inhabited by Mom Nature entities (intelligences), there are a whole bunch to 1000’s to tons of-of-1000’s (maybe extra) digital worlds with digital inhabitants existing with a virtual cosmos. If we’re simulated or digital beings (and that could embody our being the creations of somebody’s desires, not only a type of computer software program) then the question ‘is actuality actual’ is answered by “no”, our reality is not real because our actuality is simply an illusion all produced or constructed by a Supreme Programmer(s). Software program and even wetware can appear to do anything that Mother Nature can do or that God (or the gods) can do.
Nonetheless, the query won’t be are you living in someone else’s Simulated (Digital Reality) Universe but are you dwelling in your own Simulated (Digital Actuality) Universe? That is a Simulated (Digital Reality) Universe generated by your personal thoughts. What makes this doubly fascinating is that you don’t have any means of distinguishing between the 2 and both can equally accommodate the obvious look of Mother Nature’s or a Supernatural actuality.
And so the last sort of reality after Mother Nature, God, or a Supreme Programmer, is You. You are imaging your actuality. Actuality would not exist independently of your thoughts. You (or slightly your thoughts) are creating your very personal model of actuality (actually your thoughts creates your reality whether or not or not it’s your individual model since any external actuality must be channeled and filtered via your five senses and downloaded and interpreted by your mind, or as I like to place it, you are inside of Mom Nature’s cosmos but your model of that cosmos is actually inside of you residing in your thoughts). In case you are creating your personal reality, nothing else actually exists except that which exists inside your own mind, and you know how seemingly actual your mind can create issues or create alternate seemingly actual realities. How? – By altering your mind chemistry (through medication, lack of sleep, putting yourself in a sensory isolation tank for prolonged intervals) or simply by dreaming or daydreaming. How do you know that once you get up from a dream that that seemingly I am now awake period isn’t also a dream and that what you realize was a dream earlier than you seemingly woke up was only actually a dream inside a dream? You already know you dream so just carry that situation as much as the following degree. In truth your total life may very well be just one lengthy and steady dream! Mom Nature isn’t controlling your actuality; God is not controlling your actuality; a Supreme Programmer is not controlling your actuality – You are controlling your personal reality regardless that you’re projecting that reality onto another entity like Mother Nature. In the ultimate analysis you might be ‘accountable’ for your own reality since your reality, as famous above, is channeled and filtered by via your 5 senses and by way of your neural community into your mind the place all of that input is digested and interpreted by your mind. No matter how you slice and dice issues, that alone makes your actuality a hundred% unique to you and no two individuals share an identical realities.